Monday, July 28, 2008

Database Jargon

What is a Database?
A database is simply a collection of data, stored in an organized way.
For example, it may be:
_ an address list
_ employee details
_ details about items in stock.

A simple database could be used to store the names and addresses of those you send Christmas cards to, or details of your CD collection. A more complex database could be used to store the data that you need to run your company, e.g. supplier, customer, stock and order details.

Database Jargon
If you have never used a database before, you might not have encountered some of the database terminology that we will use in this book. Here are brief definitions of the terms you will come across.

Table: All the data on one topic is stored in a table. A table could contain details of the employees that work for your company. In a simple database, you might have only one table. More complex ones may consist of several tables.

Record: The data for a single item in a table is held in that item’s record. Using the employee table example, each employee would have their own record within the employee table.

Field: A field is a piece of information within a record e.g. in your employee table, things like surname, job title, date of birth, or salary grade.

Field name: The label, or name, given to a field.

Primary key: A special field that will contain a unique piece of information in each record e.g. StaffID.

Relationship: A relationship is used to link two tables through a common field.

Join: The process of linking two tables is often referred to as joining them.

Data definition: The process of defining, or describing, the data to be stored. This will involve specifying the data type (text, number, date), the field size, and how it is related to other tables.

Data manipulation: This term describes any work done on existing data within your tables. Sorting and extracting data and producing reports from it would all be examples of data manipulation.

Enjoy it.

SQL Commands

Below, given some Common SQL Command. Items bracketed [] are optional.

For a complete list of MySQL supported commands, visit the MySQL
website at http://www.mysql.com.

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD [COLUMN] ...;

CREATE DATABASE database_name;
CREATE TABLE table_name;

DELETE FROM table_name [WHERE ...];

DROP DATABASE database_name;
DROP TABLE table_name;

GRANT privilege ON table_name ►►

INSERT [INTO] table_name VALUES (...);

SELECT ... [FROM table_name(s)] ►►
[WHERE ...] [GROUP BY ... ] [ORDER BY ...];

SET PASSWORD FOR user@localhost = ►►
SET PASSWORD FOR user@"%.visibooks.com" = ►►
SET PASSWORD FOR user@"%" = PASSWORD("password");


UPDATE table_name SET column_name=value [WHERE ...];

USE database_name;

Let’s study SQL ! Enjoy It !

Friday, July 25, 2008

Risk Management

The traditional role of the risk manager as corporate steward is evolving as organizations face an increasingly complex and uncertain future. The mandate to clearly identify, measure, manage, and control risk has been expanded and integrated into best practice management of a bank. Today's risk manager is a key member of the senior executive team who helps define business opportunities from a risk-return perspective, presents unique ways of looking at them, has direct input into the configuration of products and services, and ensures the transparency of all the risks. Innovation necessitates new yardsticks for measuring and monitoring the resulting activities. The savvy corporate leader uses risk management as both a sword and a shield.
At the end of the last millennium, financial institutions and investors experienced increased volatility in the major financial and commodity markets, with many financial crises. At the start of the new millennium, we are in the midst of a technological revolution resulting in changes in the operation of markets, increased access to information, changes in the types of services available to investors, as well as major changes in the production and distribution of financial services.
If there is concern about an institution's ability to manage risk, then its share price will be penalized.
Risk is a cost of doing business for a financial institution and consequently best practice risk management is a benefit to our shareholders. To manage the risks facing an institution we must have a clearly defined set of risk policies and the ability to measure risk. But what do we measure? And how do we measure such risks? We must also have a best practice infrastructure. The starting point is that we need a framework.
This book provides such a framework. The content of the book is consistent with our own risk management strategy and experience. Our risk management strategy is designed to ensure that our senior management operates together in partnership to control risk while ensuring the independence of the risk management function. Improvements in analytic models and systems technology have greatly facilitated our ability to measure and manage risk. However, the new millennium brings new challenges. There are risks that we can identify and measure and there is the uncertainty of the unknown. The challenge facing risk managers is to minimize the consequences of the unknown. This book should help all risk and business managers address the issues arising from risk and uncertainty.

And you will get further information, please read this book:

Risk Management
Michel Crouhy
Dan Galai
Robert Mark

Mc Graw-Hill Book

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